Mathematical Knowledge for Teaching

Mathematical Knowledge for Teaching (MKT) is exemplified in our Making Sense Professional Development courses, laying one additional cornerstone for the key aspects of mathematics instruction. Deborah Loewenberg-Ball, a premiere educational researcher from the University of Michigan, leads the Mathematics Teaching and Learning To Teach Project that encompasses MKT as a part of quality mathematics instruction. MKT includes an emphasis on both subject matter and pedagogical content knowledge. MKT is knowing mathematics from the perspective of helping others to learn it and includes being mathematically ready to teach an idea, method, or other aspect (View Ball Model).

We recognize, as Ball (2011) suggests, that “teaching mathematics is a special kind of mathematical work” that  includes solving special kinds of mathematics problems, engaging in specialized mathematical reasoning, and use of mathematical language in careful ways. Teachers need opportunities to develop skills with this special kind of mathematical work. Through our Making Sense Professional Development courses, we are prepared to offer these kinds of opportunities to teachers that encompass these very important aspects of quality mathematics instruction.


Ball, D. (2011). What do math teachers need to know? Presentation for the Initiative for Applied Research in Education expert committee at the Israel Academy of Sciences and Humanities, Jerusalem, Israel, January 30, 2011. Retrieved from